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Why are women living longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have some answers. We know there are biological, psychological as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than males, افضل كريم للشعر it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

1 year agoThis chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The advantage for women in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small It has significantly increased with time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.