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Why do women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-18)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? The evidence is limited and we have only limited solutions. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables which play a significant role in women who live longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present but not previously, is to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This chart illustrates that, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live a lot, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you can confirm that the two points also apply to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.