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Why are women living longer than men?

Ramon Simas (2022-04-16)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور environmental variables which play a significant role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live longer than men do today and not previously, is to be due to the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

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The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور men living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.