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Why do women live longer than men?

Jannie Tompson (2022-04-16)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور behavioral as well as environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور regardless of weight. But this is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than males; while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

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In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart plots the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially over the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.