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Why do women live longer than men?

Latoya Antle (2022-04-16)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today, and افضل شامبو وبلسم why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men in the present but not previously, has to relate to the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in rich countries that it is today.
Let's examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.