Комментарии читателей

Why do women have longer lives than men?

Marilou Slapoffski (2022-04-16)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? Why does this benefit increase as time passes? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men do today but not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries that it is today.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Both men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small but it increased substantially in the past century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.FREEDOMFIGHTERS FOR AMERICA - THIS ORGANIZATIONEXPOSING ...