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Why are women living longer than men?

Marlys Carrico (2022-04-16)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and why is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, علامات الحمل بولد we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men in the present and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that some key non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, علامات الحمل بولد ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly over time.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.1 year ago