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Why women live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-16)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're left with only partial answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, افضل كريم للشعر ( we don't know how much each factor contributes.

We are aware that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, افضل كريم للشعر every country is above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be tiny however, it has grown significantly with time.

It is possible to verify that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.