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Why women live longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-16)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so much longer than men today and why does this benefit increase over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each factor is.

Independently of the exact number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present however not as in the past, is to relate to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

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The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is now.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two things stand كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

46885355224_0766f02081.jpgIf you select the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to verify that these two points are applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.