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Why women live longer than men?

Bryant Dawbin (2022-04-15)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence is limited and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور we only have partial answers. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence of each of these factors is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that although the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's now look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small however it increased dramatically in the past century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.