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Why do women live longer than men?

Hershel Manjarrez (2022-04-15)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women live longer than men? And why is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only incomplete solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know what the contribution of each factor is.

In spite of the weight, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, is to have to do with the fact that some fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage for افضل كريم للشعر women in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is today.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can check if these points are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.