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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Quincy Leavens (2022-04-15)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each factor is.

In spite of the precise amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason women live longer than men do today however not as in the past, is to have to do with the fact that a number of fundamental non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, شراء متابعين تيكتوك like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Mailbox Post Old \u00b7 Free photo on PixabayThere is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.