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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-15)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and ابر التخسيس environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, ابر التخسيس it isn't clear what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men today but not previously, has to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

In countries with high incomes, the women's advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest however it increased dramatically over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you are able to check that these two points apply to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.