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Why women live longer than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-15)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, we don't know how much each factor contributes.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, صبغ الشعر بالاسود regardless of weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half an hour.

The female advantage in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is now.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and صبغ الشعر بالاسود female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially during the last century.

You can check if the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.y.jpg